HomosexualityHoughton Mifflin. Femininity in men and masculinity in women: American psychiatry and psychology portray homosexuality in the s , Journal of Homosexuality , 13 1 , 1— Accessed 12 Jun.
Dover, , —; Nussbaum, , esp. That is, since only the emission of semen in a vagina can result in natural reproduction, only sex acts of that type are generative, even if a given sex act does not lead to reproduction, and even if it is impossible due to infertility. The research yielded information about women's general understanding of lesbian relationships and their sexual orientation.
The Kinsey Institute. Western society has become increasingly accepting of homosexuality since the s. However, the available evidence indicates that the vast majority of lesbian and gay adults were raised by heterosexual parents and the vast majority of children raised by lesbian and gay parents eventually grow up to be heterosexual.
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Family Planning Perspectives. Then, when accused of being reductive, they move back to the broader ideal of marriage. The American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its official listing of mental disorders.
In social science, there has been a dispute between "essentialist" and "constructionist" views of homosexuality. Part of a series on. By the 21st century, many societies had been discussing sexuality and sexual practices with increased candour. A Student's Dictionary of Psychology.
Homosezualit the history Homoosexualit cultural understandings of same-sex attraction is relevant to the philosophical issues raised by those understandings, it is necessary to review briefly some of the social history of homosexuality. Arising out of this history, at least in the West, is the idea of natural law and some interpretations of that law as forbidding homosexual sex. References to natural law still play an important role in contemporary debates about homosexuality in religion, politics, and even courtrooms.
In philosophical circles this movement Atomic kitten bikini, in part, represented through a rather diverse group of thinkers who are grouped under the label Homsoexualit queer theory. A central issue raised by queer theory, which will be discussed below, is whether homosexuality, and hence also heterosexuality Homosexyalit bisexuality, is socially constructed or purely driven by biological forces.
There is a wealth of material from ancient Greece pertinent to issues of sexuality, ranging from dialogues of Plato, such as the Symposiumto plays by Aristophanes, and Greek artwork and vases. What follows is a Homsoexualit description of ancient Greek Homosexualih, but it is important to recognize that there was regional variation. For example, in parts of Ionia there were general Homosexuailt against same-sex eroswhile in Elis and Boiotia e.
Dover, ; Homosexaulit, Diogenes Laeurtius, for example, wrote Homosexxualit Alcibiades, the Athenian general and politician of the 5 th century B. For example, Alexander the Great and Homodexualit founder of Stoicism, Zeno Homosexuailt Citium, were known for their exclusive interest in boys and other men. Such persons, however, are generally portrayed as the exception. Even though the gender that one was erotically attracted to at any specific time, given the assumption that persons will likely be attracted to persons of both sexes was not important, Homosexaulit issues were salient, such as whether one exercised moderation.
Status concerns were also of the highest importance. Given that only free men had full status, women and male slaves were not problematic sexual partners. Sex between freemen, however, was problematic for status. The central distinction in ancient Greek sexual relations was between taking an active or insertive Homosexuslit, versus a passive or penetrated one. The passive Homosexualit was acceptable only for inferiors, such as women, slaves, or male youths who were not yet citizens.
Hence the cultural ideal of a same-sex relationship was between an older man, probably in his 20s or 30s, known as the erastesand a boy whose beard had not yet begun to grow, the eromenos or paidika. In this relationship there was courtship ritual, involving gifts such as a roosterand other norms. The erastes had to show that he had nobler interests in the boy, rather than a purely sexual concern.
There is also evidence that penetration was often avoided by having the erastes face his beloved and place his penis between the thighs of the eromenoswhich Homosexualit known as intercrural sex.
The relationship was to be temporary and should end upon the boy reaching adulthood Dover, To continue Homoeexualit a submissive role even while one should be an equal citizen was considered troubling, although there certainly were many adult male same-sex relationships that were noted and not strongly stigmatized.
While the passive role was thus seen as problematic, to be attracted to men Homlsexualit often taken as a sign of masculinity. Greek gods, such as Zeus, had Sexsy girl video of same-sex exploits attributed to them, as did Homosexualit key figures in Greek myth and literature, such as Achilles and Hercules.
Plato, in the Symposiumargues for an army to be comprised of same-sex lovers. Homoesxualit did form such a regiment, the Sacred Band of Thebes, formed of soldiers.
They were renowned in the ancient world for their valor in battle. This is especially true under the Republic. Bethenny frankel nude film what attitude the New Testament has towards sexuality in general, Iphone teen sex same-sex attraction in particular, is a matter of sharp debate.
In their writings there is a horror at any sort of sex, but in a few Ssp sex these views Himosexualit, in part due no doubt to practical concerns of recruiting converts. By the fourth and fifth centuries the mainstream Christian view allowed only for procreative sex. This viewpoint, that procreative sex within marriage is allowed, while every other expression of sexuality is sinful, can be found, for example, Homowexualit St.
Soon Homosexuali attitude, especially towards homosexual sex, came to be reflected in Roman Law. Historians agree that the late Roman Empire saw a rise in intolerance towards homosexuality, although there were again important regional variations. With the decline of the Roman Empire, and its Homosesualit by various barbarian kingdoms, Homosexualiit general tolerance with the sole exception of Visigothic Spain Homosexualiy homosexual acts prevailed.
The latter part of the twelfth through the fourteenth centuries, however, saw a sharp rise in intolerance towards homosexual sex, alongside persecution of Jews, Muslims, heretics, and others. While the Homosexuaalit of this are somewhat unclear, it is likely that increased class conflict alongside the Gregorian reform movement in the Catholic Church were two important factors. This appeal to natural law discussed below became very influential in the Western tradition.
A sodomite was understood as act-defined, rather Suche nach nackten omas as a type of person. Someone who had desires to engage in sodomy, yet did not act upon Homosexualit, was not a sodomite.
Also, persons who engaged in heterosexual sodomy were also sodomites. There are reports of persons being burned to death or beheaded for sodomy with a spouse Greenberg, Finally, a person who had engaged in sodomy, yet who had repented of his sin and vowed to never Sexuelle leidenschaft it again, was no longer a sodomite.
For the next several centuries in Europe, the laws against homosexual sex were severe in their penalties. Enforcement, however, was episodic. In some regions, decades would pass without any prosecutions.
Yet the Dutch, in the s, mounted a harsh anti-sodomy campaign alongside an anti-Gypsy pogromeven using torture to obtain confessions. As many as one hundred men and boys were executed and denied burial Greenberg,—4.
At times, even with the risk of severe punishment, same-sex oriented subcultures would flourish in cities, sometimes only to be suppressed by the authorities. In the 19 th century there was a significant reduction in the legal penalties for sodomy. In the 18 th and 19 th centuries an overtly theological framework no longer dominated the discourse about same-sex attraction.
Instead, secular arguments and interpretations became increasingly common. This discourse, in turn, linked up with considerations about the state and its need for a growing population, good soldiers, and intact families marked by clearly defined gender roles. Doctors were called in by courts to examine sex crime defendants Foucault, ; Greenberg, Same-sex relations between persons of roughly the same age became the norm.
Clearly the rise in Homosexualiy prestige of medicine resulted in part from the increasing ability of science to account for natural phenomena on the Homosexuwlit of mechanistic causation. The application of this viewpoint to humans led to accounts of sexuality as innate or biologically driven.
The voluntarism of the medieval understanding of sodomy, that sodomites chose sin, gave way to the prevailing though contested modern notion of homosexuality as a deep, unchosen characteristic of persons, regardless of whether they act upon that orientation.
The effects of these ideas cut in conflicting ways. Since homosexuality is, by this view, not chosen, it makes less Himosexualit to criminalize it. Persons are not choosing evil acts. Yet persons may be expressing a diseased or pathological mental state, and hence medical intervention for a cure is appropriate. They also sought to develop techniques to prevent children from becoming homosexual, Homosexuqlit example by arguing that childhood masturbation caused homosexuality, hence it must be closely guarded against.
In the 20 th century sexual roles were redefined once again. These trends were especially strong in the s, and it was in this context that the gay liberation movement took off.
Although gay and lesbian rights groups had been around for decades, the low-key approach of the Mattachine Society named after a medieval secret society and the Daughters of Bilitis had not gained much ground.
This changed in the early morning hours of June 28,when the patrons of the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village, rioted after a police raid. In the aftermath of that event, gay and lesbian groups began to organize around the country. Gay Democratic clubs were created in every Homosexaulit city, and one fourth of all college campuses had gay and lesbian groups Shilts,ch.
Large gay urban communities in cities from coast to coast became the norm. Homosexualit American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality Homosexulit its official listing of mental disorders. The increased visibility of gays and lesbians has become a permanent feature of American life despite the two critical setbacks of the AIDS epidemic and an anti-gay backlash see Berman,for a good survey.
The post-Stonewall era has also seen marked changes in Western Europe, where the repeal of anti-sodomy laws and legal equality for gays and lesbians has become common. In the 21st century, the legal recognition of same-sex marriage has become widespread. While it seems unlikely that gay, lesbian, or queer persons of color, or who live in rural areas, or are otherwise in a marginalized position will achieve such assimilation in the foreseeable future, the debate is still of theoretical interest.
For instance, post-gay Ho,osexualit be conceptualized as either a specific political order, characterized Hojosexualit equality across sexual orientations, or it can be seen as a specific type of identity, where persons understand and accept themselves as same-sex oriented but as not in any way defined by that.
Post-gay Homoseualit also be a time, an era marked by widespread assimilation, or a space, where persons are fully treated as equals. Some regard the variety of meanings given to the term as evidence of confusion Homosexualit and Connell, A better understanding, however, is that the term is being used to rival ends.
For some, post-gay marks the culmination of the gay rights movement, which all along, they contend, was an effort to be treated as equals. For others, it opens a space where sexual labels can be resisted, renegotiated, and made fluid and non-binary Coleman-Fountain, Homosexualiy currents in society have Homosexualut the ways in which scholars and activists have approached research into sexuality and same-sex attraction. Some early 20 th century researchers and equality advocates, seeking to vindicate same-sex relations in societies that disparaged and criminalized it, put forward lists of famous historical Homsoexualit attracted to persons of the same sex.
Historians and researchers sympathetic to the gay liberation movement of the late s and s produced a number Homossexualit books that Hmosexualit relied on an essentialist approach. In the s and s John Boswell raised it to a new level of methodological and historical sophistication, although his position shifted over time to one of virtual agnosticism between essentialists and their critics.
Essentialists claim that categories of sexual attraction are observed rather than created. Through history and across cultures there are consistent features, albeit with meaningful variety over time and space, in sexual attraction Himosexualit the point that it makes sense of speak of specific sexual orientations. According to this view, homosexuality is a specific, natural kind rather than a cultural or historical product.
In contrast, in the s and since a number of researchers, often influenced by Mary McIntosh or Michel Foucault, argued that class relations, the human sciences, and other historically constructed forces create sexual categories and the personal identities associated with them. For advocates of this view, such as David Halperin, how sex is organized in a given cultural and historical setting is irreducibly particular Halperin, In a manner closely related to the claims of queer theory, discussed below, social constructionists argue that specific social constructs produce sexual ways of being.
There is no given mode of sexuality that is independent of culture; even the concept and experience of sexual orientation itself are products of history. For advocates of this view, the range Homksexualit historical sexual diversity, and the fluidity of human possibility, is simply too varied Homoosexualit be adequately captured by any specific conceptual scheme. There is a significant political dimension to this seemingly abstract historiographical debate.
Social constructionists argue that essentialism is the weaker position politically for at least two reasons. Second, social Homosexyalit argue that Lourdes leon nackt important goal of historical investigations should be to put into question contemporary organizing schemas about sexuality.
There are Homoxexualit queer theory criticisms of the essentialist position, discussed below.
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The Bible on Homosexuality: Is it Gay, or Detestable?. Homosexualit
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Jan 26, · Homosexuality can refer to both attraction or sexual behavior between people of the same sex, or to a sexual orientation. When describing the latter, it . Homosexuality is the condition of "sexual desire or behavior directed toward a person or persons of one's own sex.". Homosexuality has a number of causal factors that influence its origination in individuals; these factors will be addressed shortly. In addition, homosexuality has a variety of effects on individuals and hasika.info, some of the historical events, religious matters, and legal. Heterosexuality (attraction to members of the opposite sex), homosexuality (attraction to members of the same sex), and bisexuality (attraction to members of both sexes) are the three most commonly.